Creative Commons Licenses

Licenses that include legal statements by the owner of copyright in intellectual property specifically allowing people to use or redistribute the copyrighted work in accordance with conditions specified therein.


A value or set of values representing a specific concept or concepts. Data become “information” when analyzed and possibly combined with other data in order to extract meaning, and to provide context. The meaning of data can vary depending on its context. Data includes all data. It includes, but is not limited to, 1) geospatial data 2) unstructured data, 3) structured data, etc.

Data Page

A hub for data discovery which provides a common location that lists and links to an organization’s datasets. Such a hub is often located at

Data Cloud

Data cloud, also called the Linked Data Cloud, is a visual representation of datasets published as Linked Data. Many academic institutions republish data from their respective governments as Linked Data, often enhancing the representation in the process.

Data Hub, The

The Data Hub is a specific site offering a community-run catalogue of data sets of data on the Internet, powered by the open-source data portal platform CKAN. The Data Hub is an openly editable open data catalogue in the style of Wikipedia.

Data Market

A data market, also called a Data Marketplace, is an online (broker) service to enable discovery and access to a large collection of datasets offered by a range of data providers. Data Markets may include open as well as paid-for data, and may offer value added services such as APIs and visualizations and programmatic data access. —source

Data Mining

Data mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use.

Data Modeling

Data modeling is a process of organizing data and information describing it into a faithful representation of a specific domain of knowledge. Linked data modeling applies modeling techniques based on Linked Data Principles.

Data Warehouse

A data warehouse is one approach to data integration in which data from various operational data systems is extracted, cleaned, transformed and copied to a centralized repository. The centralized repository can then be used for data mining or answering analytical queries. By contrast, Linked Data assumes a distributed approach of data management using HTTP URIs to describe and access information resources. A Linked Data approach is seen as an valid alternative to the centralized data warehouse approach especially when integrating datasets available on the public Web.


A collection of data stored according to a schema and manipulated according to the rules set out in one Data Modelling Facility.


A dataset is an organized collection of data. The most basic representation of a dataset is data elements presented in tabular form. Each column represents a particular variable. Each row corresponds to a given value of that column’s variable. A dataset may also present information in a variety of non-tabular formats, such as an extensible markup language (XML) file, a geospatial data file, or an image file, etc.


DBpedia is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make it available on the Web. DBpedia is often depicted as a hub for the Data Cloud. An RDF representation of the metadata held in Wikipedia and made available for SPARQL query on the World Wide Web.


Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) is an RDF vocabulary. It is designed to facilitate interoperability between data catalogs published on the Web.

Directive 2003/98/EC

The Directive on the re-use of public sector information (also known as the ‚PSI Directive‘) provides a common legislative framework to a previously unregulated European market for government data (public sector information). It is built around two key pillars of the internal market: transparency and fair competition.


An association between a binding and a network address, specified by a URI, that may be used to communicate with an instance of a service. An end point indicates a specific location for accessing a service using a specific protocol and data format.


GitHub is a social coding platform allowing developers to publicly or privately build code repositories and interact with other developers around these repositories–providing the ability to download or fork a repository, as well as contribute back, resulting in a collaborative environment for software development.